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human : 20
mouse : 1
|Mouse||HMGA2||8091||high mobility group AT-hook 2|
This and the finding that prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas develop in transgenic mice overexpressing the wild-type HMGA2 gene (which maps to 12q14-15) prompted us to investigate HMGA2 rearrangements and expression in human prolactinomas.
|Human||TUBA1C||84790||tubulin, alpha 1c|
After treatment with bromocriptine, the reticular distribution of microtubules in prolactinoma cells changed into a coarse and sparse pattern, which was identical with the changes in the distribution of tubulin after treatment with colchicine.
Immunofluorescence demonstration of tubulin and actin in estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma cells in vitro.
|Human||PTTG1||9232||pituitary tumor-transforming 1|
PTTG1 is abundantly expressed in human pituitary tumors and plays a role in the early stages of experimental prolactinoma formation.
|Human||AIP||9049||aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein|
Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma
|Human||HMGA2||8091||high mobility group AT-hook 2|
These data suggest a critical role of the HMGA2 overexpression in the generation of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas in humans.
By previous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase PCR analyses on human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas we detected rearrangement of the HMGA2 gene and amplification of its native region associated with activated expression.
By dual-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using HMGA2-specific PACs and BACs, we found that the HMGA2 locus was amplified in seven of the eight prolactinoma samples examined.
|Human||TIMP2||7077||TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2|
In this study, paraffin-embedded material from 84 human pituitary adenomas (acromegaly n=18, Cushings disease n=21, prolactinoma n=18, thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma n=1, nonsecreting adenoma n=26) and 9 nontumourous anterior pituitary lobes (obtained from patients with prostate cancer) was immunohistochemically analysed for expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6).
|Human||SSTR5||6755||somatostatin receptor 5|
In contrast, SSTR5 was highly expressed in 10 of 11 GH-secreting adenomas and 1 prolactinoma.
These results suggest that both SSTR2 and SSTR5 are involved in GH regulation in somatotroph adenoma cells, whereas SSTR5 exclusively regulates PRL secretion from prolactinoma cells.
SSTR5 mRNA was not expressed in four human pituitary tumors (somatotroph adenoma, prolactinoma, and chromophobe adenomas) or in a human insulinoma.
Recently, it was demonstrated that somatostatin analogs preferential for the SSTR5 subtype suppress PRL release from prolactinoma cell cultures by 30-40%.
|Human||SNRPN||6638||small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N|
We report on a Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patient carrier of a balanced 15q15q translocation and affected by a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma.
|Human||SNAP25||6616||synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa|
Expressed in prolactin-producing pituitary adenomas; may play an important role in prolactin release
|Human||PCNA||5111||proliferating cell nuclear antigen|
A slight, statistically insignificant tendency towards negative correlation between PPARgamma and PCNA was found in somatotropinomas, prolactinomas, corticotropinomas and gonadotropinomas
|Human||NGFR||4804||nerve growth factor receptor|
Nerve growth factor regulates dopamine D(2) receptor expression in prolactinoma cell lines via p75(NGFR)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB
|Human||GNAS||2778||GNAS complex locus|
|Human||GHSR||2693||growth hormone secretagogue receptor|
GHSR mRNA was also detected in all pituitary adenomas with the highest mean level in GH-producing adenomas, a moderate level in nonfunctioning adenoma, and the lowest level in prolactinoma and Gn-producing adenomas.
|Human||GHRH||2691||growth hormone releasing hormone|
In prolactinoma cells, somatostatin and dopamine unequivocally suppressed PRL secretion; however, other stimuli including GHRH, VIP, and CRF were ineffective.
|Human||FGF4||2249||fibroblast growth factor 4|
Thus, hst may directly facilitate prolactinoma development via paracrine or autocrine action of its secreted protein, FGF-4.
Seven prolactinoma DNA samples were tested for deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) locus, as well as for rearrangements in the hst gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family.
CONCLUSIONS: hst protein may be directly involved in prolactinoma development or progression, particularly in invasive tumours, probably due to the growth promoting effects of FGF-4.
|Human||FGF1||2246||fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)|
However, both electron microscopy and immunostaining for S-100 marker protein revealed that the postero-lateral edges of the AP of F344 rats often lacked FSC when compared to SD rats, a situation which could compromise regulation of FGF by FSC at the AP periphery in that strain, and thereby contribute to the neovascularization from systemic blood vessels known to occur in that strain during prolactinoma formation.
|Human||DRD2||1813||dopamine receptor D2|
Since two D2R isoforms (termed D2S and D2L) have been cloned previously, we first determined which isoform(s) is present in the lactotroph by measuring the level of each mRNA species in rat prolactinoma.
Laminin showed a dynamic expression pattern during prolactinoma development, which was: (a) strong in normal pituitaries from wild type or dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice, (b) lower in pituitary hyperplasia and (c) markedly reduced in prolactinomas from D2R -/- mice.
nerve growth factor regulates dopamine D(2) receptor expression in prolactinoma cell lines via p75(NGFR)-mediated activation of nuclear factor-kappaB
Erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase, platelet monoamine oxidase, and platelet phenol sulfotransferase activities in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
|Human||CNTF||1270||ciliary neurotrophic factor|
CNTF stimulates prolactin secretion in lactotropic monolayer cell cultures from patients with prolactinoma.
|Human||CDH1||999||cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)|
The reduction of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression was related to invasiveness and proliferative status of prolactinomas and correlated with the more aggressive behavior of prolactinomas in men compared with in women
|Human||BMP4||652||bone morphogenetic protein 4|
Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in pituitary prolactinoma pathogenesis through a Smad/estrogen receptor crosstalk.
BMP-4 is overexpressed in other prolactinoma models, including estradiol-induced rat prolactinomas and human prolactinomas, compared with normal tissue and other pituitary adenoma types (Western blot analysis of 48 tumors).